Friday, May 27, 2011

Developmental Grids According to Piaget and Erikson


Stage of Cognitive Development According to Piaget


The Formal Operational Stage (ages 11 to 15 yrs.)
The Concrete Operational Stage (ages 7 to 11 yrs.)



Age and characteristics of this stage





·      Think in more abstract, idealistic, and logical ways
·      Verbal problem solving is possible.
·      Students speculate about the ideal qualities they desire in themselves and others
·      Students can devise plans to solve problems.
·      Develop hypothesis and reach systematic conclusions.
·      Adolescent egocentrism involves 2 basic ideas. One being that they believe others are as interested in them as much as they are in themselves. The second being that the adolescent desires to be publically noticed
·      Children can reverse concrete operations as well
·      Children can also classify or divide things into different sets or subsets
·      Literal classification skills only
·      Children can do mentally what they previously could only do physically
·      Transitivity, means reason about and logically combined relationships
·      Seriation, a concrete operation that involves ordering stimuli along some quantitative dimension



Teaching suggestions appropriate to this age/stage of development




·      Group problem solving
·      Exploring Individuality
·      Act out dramas
·      Verbalize and depict idealistic points of view



·      Use visual aids to explain relationships
·      Encourage thought processes
·      Make more complex classifications
·      Describe the reverse of information
·      Logical reasoning replaces intuition


Psychosocial Stages According to Erikson


Adolescence Stage
(ages 10 to 20 yrs. of age)
Early adulthood Stage
(ages 20 to 30 yrs. of age)



Age and characteristics of this stage





·      Identity versus identity confusion
·      Who am I?
·      What do I want in life?
·      Where am I going in life?
·      Exploration into sexual identity
·      Exploration into vocational possibilities
·      Identity moratorium, identity status in which individuals have made a commitment but have not explored meaningful alternatives yet
·      Self-Esteem, the adolescent’s overall conception of himself is seriously challenged others and himself

·      Intimacy versus isolation
·      How can I form positive relationships with others?
·      How can I form close lasting relationships with others?
·      Dangers in feeling socially isolated
·      Care Perspective, a moral perspective that focuses on connectedness and relationships among people
·      Values clarification, moral education that emphasizes helping people clarify what their lives are for and what is worth working for, define your values and the values of others



Teaching suggestions appropriate to this age/stage of development




·      Observing a wide variety of life styles
·      Learning about diversity
·      Participating in debates
·      Learn to develop independent thinking
·      Experiment with different vocations
·      Social environments should be pursued openly. (Students begin to attend dances and date)
·      Encourage individuality, discourage intolerance of differences
·      Teachers should verbally engage with a diverse student body to demonstrate the acceptance and appreciation of diversity.
·      Teachers should introduce materials that encourage and engage students in diverse cultural accomplishments



·      Assign to these students study groups to encourage relationships with peers
·      Assignments that require a development of social interaction with others helps those students who are prone to isolation and introverted activities. Example, field observations in their community!
·      Positive reinforcement of group problem solving helps maintain lasting friendships
·      Encourage and reward community involvement with charities to aid students in developing intimate meaningful relationships.
·      Encourage young adults to join clubs of any kind in order to provide environments for them to mingle